Author Archives: olhspupil

Elizabethan Entertainment by Maria and Casey

In our English class this term we have been studying Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. We have been researching entertainment in the days when Shakespeare was alive.

When the Elizabethan people had finished their jobs (some were blacksmiths and carpenters) they liked to relax and enjoy some entertainment. Entertainment from those days is very different to what it is now. Here are some of the entertainments that people enjoyed back in the Elizabethan era.

Hunting was one of the most popular sports in the Elizabethan era. Force hunting was one of the most famous types of hunting. This sport was mainly for rich, young and active men. The men would go into the forest and hunt for wild boars. Not all men could take part in this event because they would need a licence. All the forests at the time were owned by the royal family and they didn’t want just anybody in the forests so they demanded everybody in their forests had a licence. The laws were very strict about this and if you were found without a licence you could be blinded or even hanged.

A 17th century engraving on bear-baiting [Public domain]

A 17th century engraving on bear-baiting [Public domain]

Another form of entertainment enjoyed in the Elizabethan times were blood sports. Blood sports were also really popular and were played by many people.Bull-baiting, bear-baiting, cock-fighting and dog fighting were all types of blood sports. These sports were so popular that nearly every town had its own bull and bear-baiting ring and even Queen Elizabeth loved to watch these sports. People in Elizabethan times didn’t think these sports were violent and  didn’t think about the animals used in the sports and how they were getting hurt or even killed.

 

Another common thing in Elizabethan times were plays. As well as Shakespeare there were many other famous playwrights in the Elizabethan times. Christopher Marlow who was born in 1564 and died in 1593 and Thomas Kyd who was born in 1558 and died in 1594 were both famous playwights from the City of London. Thomas Kyd has become even more famous because many people suspect that he may have written Hamlet and that Shakepeare stole it from him. Plays were first performed in Inn-yards but as they grew more popular people began to build lots more theatres  and more and more plays were written and performed. Thomas Kyd’s most famous play was The Spanish Tradegy and Christopher Marlow’s most famous play was Edward II.

Christmas was a very important time for people in the Elizabethan times. It was the time for people to eat, drink and relax. In 1588 Queen Elizabeth ordered everyone to at least have a goose to eat on Christmas Day. Many rich people would have an amazing feast at Christmas. Christmas ran from the 24th December to the 6th January. The final day was called Twelfth Night and was the last time the people could celebrate before returning to normal life.

These were some of the things that we found interesting about entertainment in the Elizabethan era. Some of the things Shakespeare himself would have enjoyed. Entertainment then was very different from what it is now, but these were the things that people liked to do for fun.

Sources:

Elizabethan era, http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-entertainment.htm Accessed 20/10/ 2016

Elizabethan Theatre Blog by Holly

Today, I am going to be writing a blog about the Elizabethan theatre. I am going to be writing  a blog entry on  Elizabethan theatre because my English class are currently reading ‘Romeo and Juliet’ this term.

The Elizabethan theatre became popular as Queen Elizabeth liked acting and entertainment, however the London authorities did not feel the same way about acting and entertainment so they refused to allow plays within the city

Between 1567-1614 there were 12 amphitheatres built (an amphitheatre is an open air venue which was used to play sports and watch plays). Then between 1576-1629 there were 9 playhouses built (the playhouse was another place you could go and watch plays). One of the most famous playhouses from this time was The Globe. The Globe had a 1500 plus audience capacity and up to 3000 people would rush to The Globe and its grounds. It was built 1597-1598.There was no central heating or even a roof  so the plays were performed in The Globe during summer months. During the winter months the plays would get moved to the indoor playhouses. The Globe has the same wooden poles as the original.

Globe Theatre, London by AndreasPraefcke [Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0]

Globe Theatre, London by AndreasPraefcke [Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0]

Back in 1576 there was a law passed making it illegal to perform/act without a licence. Women were not allowed in the theatre until 1662, meaning men had to play the parts of women for years. Younger men/boys would usually play the parts of women while older men would play the male roles. This meant that there would be no hugging or kissing on the stage.

All in all the Elizabethan theatre was very different to the theatre today. I hope you enjoyed my blog on the Elizabethan theatre and thank you for taking your time to read it-  Holly

Sources:

The Life, Times, Works and Biography of William Shakespeare, http://ww.william-shakespeare.info, accessed 12/09/2016

Elizabethan Theatre: Part One, https://www.theatrefolk.com/spotlights/elizabethan-theatre-part-one, accessed 12/09/2016

16th Century Fashion by Emma and Erin

In our class we are studying Romeo and Juliet and me and my partner have decided to learn more about fashion in the 16th century when William Shakespeare was around. Here are some topics we shall touch on: hats and headdresses, shoes and boots, men (upper class, middle class and peasants), Woman (upper class, middle class and peasants), Fashion icons/ Trend setter, materials and dyes and jewelry.

Hats and headdresses

In the 16th century hats and headdresses were the biggest/grandest ever seen in England. Pupils and scholars were the first to wear bonnets. The most fashionable gentlemen wore bonnets. The french hood is a jeweled hat and covers most of their hair. Neck ruffs were originated in Spain, It frames the face and men also wore them.

Shoes and boots

The 16th century had very extreme and simple footwear. Women had very simple footwear because they wore very long skirts and dresses. No one could see their footwear. Ordinary people would have/wear simple shoes. A type of shoe is duck bills, they were shoes with extremely broad toe. In the early 16th century shoes might have been slashed. Shoes were slashed for decorative purposes.

Men’s fashion

There were upper class, middle class and peasants (or stinkards/groundlings), (what they were called in the 16th century). The upper/middle class men wore: flat caps with feathers, shirt frills(which later became ruffs), Jerkins, doublet sleeves, nether hose, broad toe shoes with slashing, upper hose and cod piece. Peasants would have worn straight or louse fitted trousers that reached mid calf. Men wore many layers of clothing as you can see from our list. The silhouette of a man in the 16th century resembles a square.

Women’s clothing

There are upper/middle class and peasants. The upper/middle class woman wore: parlet, kirtle, smock, corset and long skirts or dresses. Peasant woman would wear: a one piece, a kirtle, sleeveless dress and a gown/overdress. Some upper class woman would hang small sweet-smelling spices on their belts to hide the rotten old smell of the streets. The silhouette of a woman in the 16th century resembles a triangle.

Fashion icons/trend setters

The 16th century had very powerful people who then became everyone’s fashion icons. Here are some trend setters: Queen Elizabeth I is remembered as a fashion icon because of her day to day clothing choices, King Frances I of France became the first true trend setter. The trend setters had set up a foundation for our modern-day styles. Members and monarchs of their court were made better by the trends.

A young Queen Elizabeth I by Percy Anderson [Public domain]

A young Queen Elizabeth I by Percy Anderson [Public domain]

Materials and dyes

Here are some of the most popular fabrics and trims: linen, silk, velvet, leather, lace and they used gold and silver for embroidery/trims. Buttons were only worn by the rich. They were made with gold and silver sometimes had a setting of gemstones. Wool was worn by everyone. The most expensive dyes were: bright red , purple and indigo.

pendant_kremlin_exhibition_moscow_2011

Pendant by shakko [Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0]

Jewelry

Many women wore jewelry to make an outfit original and more them. It was very popular in the 16th century. Rich people would have better quality jewelry than others.

As you can see fashion in the 16th century was very elaborate. It was also much more complex than present day fashion.

 

 

Sources

Fashion through the ages Shoes and boots by Fiona MacDonald (ticktock media LTD, 2006)

Fashion through the ages Hats and headdresses  by Fiona MacDonald (ticktock media LTD, 2006)

Panorama a history of fashion from loincloths to Lycra by Jacqueline Morley (MacDonald, 1995)

Sixteenth-Century Clothing, http://www.fashionencyclopedia.com/fashion_costume_culture/European-Culture-16th-Century/Sixteenth-Century-Clothing.html accessed 02/10/16

Women’s Clothing, http://www.lepg.org/women.htm accessed 02/10/16

Mens Clothing, http://www.lepg.org/men.htm accessed 05/10/16

16th Century Fashion, http://mens-fashion.lovetoknow.com/16th_Century_Fashion accessed 05/10/16

How Football Brings People Together by Michael and Ciaran

We have chosen to research how football brings people together because it shows how one game can make people happy. We are going to talk about two tournaments in particular: the Homeless World Cup and the Green Brigade Anti Discrimination tournament. This links to the book’ Divided City’ through the Glasgow City football team and how that brought Joe and Graham together.

The Homeless World Cup started in 2001 to help homeless people get active and to compete for their country. The first two years they were not playing for a trophy but, since 2003, they have been. Over 100,000 people take part each year as players, match officials, coaches and more. 74 countries take part each year. The organisation has 70 national partners. A player has been scouted for a professional team in Spain and made a good living out of it after playing in this tournament. This shows that this tournament could change the lives of homeless people.

In the Homeless World Cup, the winners of a match get three points and the loser gets 0 points. In this sport there must be a winner; the game would go to a sudden death penalty shoot-out and if you win the shoot-out you get two points and if you lose you get one point. The pitches are 27 metres long and 16 metres wide and a size five ball is used.

Homeless World Cup 2007 by maltesen [Licence: CC BY 2.0]

Homeless World Cup 2007 by maltesen [Licence: CC BY 2.0]

In the Homeless World Cup there have been many winners :

  • 2003- Austria;
  • 2004 – Italy;
  • 2005 – Italy;
  • 2006 – Russia;
  • 2007 – Scotland;
  • 2008 – Afghanistan;
  • 2009 – Ukraine;
  • 2010 – Brazil;
  • 2011 – Scotland;
  • 2012 – Chile;
  • 2013 – Brazil;
  • 2014 – Chile;
  • 2015- Mexico.

The Green Brigade set up a tournament for mostly refugees and immigrants. It is held in the Garngad every year. All the money raised goes to local foodbanks to help the refugees and immigrants. The Green Brigade take part in this tournament and lots of people turn up each year. It is a very big tournament in Glasgow as the Green Brigade are very popular for the things they do for homeless people.

In conclusion, the Homeless World Cup and The Green Brigade Anti Discrimination tournament shows us that people come together in football all over the world.  These tournaments help the homeless, refugees and asylum seekers; no matter where they came from or what backgrounds they come from they still come together to play football. 

Sources:

Green Brigade Anti Discrimination Tournament 2015, http://www.celticnewsnow.com/news/green-brigade-anti-discrimination-tournament-2015/117191/, accessed 14/12/2015        

Homeless World Cup Home Page, https://www.homelessworldcup.org/, accessed 11/12/15

 

Martin Luther King By Lucy And Kayla

In English we’ve been looking at the book “The Fire Eaters” which is set in the 60s. We have chosen to research Martin Luther King Jr. because he is a huge icon for the Civil Rights movement.

Martin Luther King was born on the 15th of January 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia , USA. He was originally called Michael but his dad re-named him in 1939. He was raised in a Catholic family with brother, Alfrid Daniel Williams King, and sister, Christine King Farris. In 1948 he was ordained as well as marrying Corretta Scott in 1953. Corretta Scott was a black woman and was a fabulous singer. They went on to have four children.

Martin Luther King Jr. Photo by Walter Albertin [Public Domain].

Martin Luther King Jr. Photo by Walter Albertin [Public Domain].

King was invited to the White House to meet President J F Kennedy.

Martin Luther King with Robert Kennedy. Photo by Abi Rowe {Public Domain]

Martin Luther King with Robert Kennedy. Photo by Abi Rowe [Public Domain]

Civil rights became less of a priority for people until King started to protest in 1961 and 1962, targeting Birmingham, Alabama. Both events were unsuccessful and he even got sent to jail for leading the protest. Fire hoses and dogs were set on protesters. He was interviewed on TV catching the attention of millions of people, This made him a prominent figure. He gave the civil rights movement a voice.

Even though huge progress was made, less than a month later whites bombed an all black church in Birmingham. It killed four young girls and caught King’s attention. He spoke at their funeral.

On August 28th 1963 Martin debuted his famous speech “I Have A Dream.” More than 200,000 gathered in Washington and more watched on the TV. He became a symbolic figure for civil rights across the world and gave hope to millions of black Americans and more.

Five years later, Martin Luther King was assassinated on the 4th of April at the age of 39. This shocked millions and only made the fight for rights even tougher without their leader.

Martin Luther King Jr is an inspirational man and changed civil rights forever. He has shown how hard it was in the 60’s and how one act can affect all of the world forever.

“If you can’t fly, then run

If you can’t run, then walk

If you can’t walk, then crawl

But whatever you do,

Keep on moving forward.”

– Martin Luther King Jr

Did Martin Luther King achieve his lifedream? http://www.bbc.co.uk/timelines/z86tn39,  accessed 20th October 2015

Martin Luther King Jr  1929-1968  By Anita Ganeri (Franklin Watts, 2003)

Fidel Castro by Liam and Reagan

In English we are currently reading a book called ”The Fire Eaters” by David Almond. ”The Fire Eaters” is set in the late summer of 1962. So, in pairs, we chose a topic related to an event that was happening in the 60’s. We have chosen to study Fidel Castro. Here is a bit about him:

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on the 13th of August 1926 in Biran, Cuba. His parents were named Angel Castro and Lina Ruz Gonzalez. His dad was an immigrant but his mum was born in Cuba. He also had a brother named Raul.

In his early life he liked to read and cook. He attended the University of Havana and got a degree in law. He became a political activist in law school then later became a lawyer.

In 1959 he and his brother Raul attempted to take over the Cuban government, but failed and were sent to jail. He was sentenced to jail for 15 years but was let out after 22 months. He fled to Mexico with his brother and met a man named Guevara who helped Castro and his brother create a small army. Castro, Raul, Che Guevara and his small army went back to Cuba and based themselves in the Cuban mountains. They started a guerrilla war against Batista’s government. They gained lots of support by telling the Cubans that he would  bring back democracy and freedom in Cuba. So Batista left the country and on New Year’s Day 1959 Fidel Castro became the new Prime Minister of Cuba.

Castro made a law that all rent prices would be halved in price because lots of Cubans were homeless. He also provided free health care for everyone. He got rid of all the American companies and started up new businesses. Thousands of people lost employment because of Castro’s ideas.

Fidel Castro. Photo by Marcelo Montecino [Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0]

Fidel Castro. Photo by Marcelo Montecino [Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0]

In the 60’s America and Russia were involved in a war. Cuba let Russia place their missiles in Cuba so that it would have been easier for Russia to blow up Cuba therefore America and Cuba were now enemies. This nearly started WW III because President Kennedy, the current leader of America, wasn’t going to accept Russia and Cuba ‘teaming up’ to fight America. He tried many times to overthrow Castro. Russia gave Cuba lots of support by letting them use their machinery. The CIA told JFK it would be easy to overthrow Castro but it wasn’t.

When the Soviet Union fell apart Cuba really struggled to survive on their own. In 1976 Castro became the President of Cuba and would be in power for another 32 years until he gave up power in 2008. Fidel Castro is still alive today and is still living in Cuba. Russia eventually took their missiles out of America.

We chose Fidel Castro because he was a big part of the hostilities which was currently happening in the book we are reading  ‘The Fire Eaters’ and the main character in it ‘Bobby Burns’ is scared in case he would need to fight in this war.

Websites we used for our research were:

Fidel Castro, http://www.ducksters.com/biography/world_leaders/fidel_castro.php, accessed 14/11/15

Fidel Castro biography, http://www.biography.com/people/fidel-castro-9241487, accessed 12/10/15

The Cuban Missile Crisis by Peter Chrisp (World Almanac Library, )

Istanbul Derby by Aidan and Nathan

We have been studying “Divided City” by Thresa Breslin and so for our blog we decided to focus on football. We chose to research The Istanbul Derby because it shows a major contrast between two classes, the wealthy and the working class. The two clubs which compete in the derby are Galatasaray and Fenerbahce. The clubs have very interesting heritage and amazing stories. Their stories are very similar to the Old Firm derby, the biggest in Scottish football, which appears in “Divided City”

In the Istanbul derby there are two classes: the wealthy and the working. Galatasaray was formed from a prestigious private school called Galatasaray Academy. To start with, only the wealthy could play for Galatasaray. On the other hand, Fernerbahce was formed by a group of poor locals to give the less fortunate a chance. However, they couldn’t play league football due to a Turkish ban. Eventually the ban was lifted and Fenerbache could play league games.

Fener choreo by Avl Tm (cropped) [Licence: (CC BY-NC 2.0]

Fener choreo by Avl Tm (cropped) [Licence: (CC BY-NC 2.0]

The first game between the two clubs was held on the 17th January, 1909. At this point, the two clubs weren’t rivals. The infamous rivalry really began when Fenerbahce won the first non-domestic cup match .

Since 1909 there as been a series of heated events in the rivalry including riots and the moment that Graham Souness planted a Galatasary flag in Fenerabahce’s home stadium during a match in 1996.The 200 UEFA cup riots involved the English side Arsenal and Galatasary it was nicknamed the battle for Copenhagen there was  stabbings and shootings despite there being 2000 officers.      

Tension really gathered when, in 2013 after a heated match where Fenerbahce came out victors over their rivals Galatasary, a young boy was stabbed to death by a group of Galatasary ultras.

The Istanbul derby is an event of controversy and tension but something that plays a major part in the derby  is over-looked: the football. Fenerbahce won their last meeting but the two clubs have played some amazing football. Galatasary have one more Super Lig title though and, as it stands, Fenerbahce are seven points ahead of Galatasary (2015/16) and are on course to win the league. If they win they will go equal on Super Lig titles with Galatasary. To conclude, Galatasary and  are apart of what could be the most intense rivalry in the history of football. They will next compete against each other on March 20th 2016.

Galatasaray badge by Federico Mera [Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0]

Galatasaray badge by Federico Mera [Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0]

History of the Istanbul Derby – Fenerbahce vs Galatasaray: http://www.sportskeeda.com/football/history-istanbul-derby-fenerbahce-galatasaray – 21//11/15

Arsenal 0-0 Galatasaray: http://www.arseweb.com/99-00/reports/170500.html – 23/11/15

Hallowe’en around the World Emilia and Maja

We were learning how to use a blog and had to choose something scary. We chose to write about Halloween in different places around the world. Some of the traditions are similar but they’re all very interesting. We hope that this piece of writing will make people want to read it.

The first country we wrote about is Poland. In Poland the tradition tells that people buy flowers and candles and lay them on the graves of their family members or friends. It happens on the 1st and 2nd of November and it’s called “Wszystkich Swietych” which translates to ” All Saints Day. ”

The second place we have researched is Spain. In Spain during Hallowe’en people honour the dead members of their families or their friends. This feast is a happy celebration, so people make parties.

We also wrote about Indonesia. On Hallowe’en, people in Indonesia traditionally make a lot of noise, they say it helps to scare away the evil spirits. Therefore the next day people must stay quiet and can’t do any work.

The next country we’ve chosen is the United States of America.  In the USA on Hallowe’en we can see children dressing up in scary costumes. They go around houses and ask for sweets which is called trick-or-treat . However if children don’t get anything they do something bad to the house owners.

The last place we decide to write about is Scotland. During Hallowe’en  in Scotland, people do apple dooking, tell scary stories and many children dress up which is called guising. When they go around the houses they have to say a joke, dance or sing to get a treat.

In conclusion all the traditions are very interesting . They are quite different,  they are very fascinating and we would all like to take part in them.

Mystical tree and abandoned house by Artiom Ponkratenko [Licence: CC BY 2.0]

Mystical tree and abandoned house by Artiom Ponkratenko [Licence: CC BY 2.0]

Sources

All Saints’ Day in Poland, http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/poland/all-saints-day, accessed 17/11/2015

Hallowe’en in Spain, http://spainattractions.es/halloween-spain/, accessed 17/11/2015

Celebrating Hallowe’en in Indonesia, http://www.expat.or.id/info/halloween.html , accessed 17/11/2015

  Hallowe’en in United States,  http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/us/halloween , accessed  17/11/2015

Discussion with Mr. Kerr,  17/11/2015

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Euan and Evan

We were learning how to write a blog in English and we had to pick a scary story and the topic we chose to do was Jekyll and Hyde. We chose this because it was interesting and captivating.

The Story of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a very mysterious and thought provoking story written by Robert Louis Stevenson based on the true events of Deacon Brodie. Dr Jekyll is a man who experiments on himself and only ends up creating a monster that he can’t control. Mr Hyde is a mischievous character who only wants to bring out the worst in Dr Jekyll. Dr Jekyll tries to make pills that can control Mr Hyde but it is difficult because there are people out to get him.

Robert Louis Stevenson was a very clever and strange author. He wrote a few books and one in particular is Treasure Island. The books he wrote tells us about his life and what life was like for him. He was an outstanding person because back in the 1800’s no one would have dreamed of the way he wrote and how he wrote it and he was constantly experimenting with his writing. He was born on the 13th November 1858 in Edinburgh, Scotland. His full name is actually Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson and he came from a long line of lighthouse engineers. During his boyhood he spent his holidays with his grandfather who was a minister and professor of moral philosophy and he shared his love with him through storytelling. It came to be widely known that he was a great writer because everyone was talking about him because Jekyll and Hyde was such a good story and it was a very fascinating story and book. We found a variety of websites that we looked deeply into and we picked all of the key information such as the story of Deacon Brodie and used it to make our story even better.

Deacon Brodie is the man in the original story of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. He was a burglar by day and a criminal by night. He could never control the monster inside him which caused him to be executed in public. He was really just a man who wanted more in life but couldn’t quite get it and all he ended up doing was just ruining his own life.

The TV show Jekyll and Hyde was a very good programme. It was also really interesting and had a very good plot but also very entertaining to watch and there was a new episode on every Sunday night which was broadcast on STV at 7.00pm. It was also brilliant because every week it left you on a cliffhanger and made you want to watch it the next week.

In conclusion we really enjoyed reading and looking deeper into the story of the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and just getting to grips with the aspects of the whole story. It just shows how a good man can be two different people due to science and him and his mad ways. All he wants to do is just be different and he ends up creating a monster. Our opinion is that we thought that the story was great.

Sources

Deacon William Brodie, http://www.rampantscotland.com/famous/blfamdeacon.htm, accessed 15th November 2015

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson

The Irish Potato Famine By Emily and Abigail

Introduction

The topic we have chosen was the Irish Potato Famine. We chose this as we are very interested in this topic. It is also a topic that is brought up frequently in the novel “Divided City” by Theresa Breslin. There is one scene in the novel where during a football match between Celtic and Rangers, the Rangers supporters throw potatoes at the Celtic fans as a symbol of the Irish potato famine which is what we decided to research more about.

How the Famine Began

In 1846, more than half of the entire Irish population were relying only on potatoes for their diet. The other half of the population relied on potatoes for the majority of their diet. Moist, damp weather and the arrival of the North American potato disease, Phytofthora, caused at least a quarter of all potatoes to rot before they were ripe. Around one million people died of starvation and disease. Another two million emigrated to other parts of the UK and overseas in order to stay alive and not be at risk of dying.

Statistics

The Potato Famine lasted for six years and the population went from 8.4 million to 6.6 million. Also known as the Great Potato Famine, the life expectancy dropped to 40 years old. Although the government tried to help it was unfortunately inadequate and did not help the tragic circumstances nor did it help the situation for the unlucky Irish in this terrible situation. The government did not do enough to help the people of Ireland.

The Aftermath

The effect was shocking as the famine lasted for a total of six years and killed many. The decades that followed were no better as businesses were taken over by poorly educated farmers. Rent prices increased so that the houses could be knocked down so that there was more potato farms. They continued this after the famine was over in order to grow potatoes. When Ireland gained independence in 1921, the population was half of what it was in the 1840’s before the famine.

Conclusion

We hope that this has been informative and has taught you something that you perhaps did not already know about the Irish Potato Famine. The novel “Divided City” discusses the event and how people today remember and are even mocked for the tragic event in history.

Great Irish Famine Memorial at Penn's Landing, Philadelphia by Alexmar983 [Licence: (CC BY-SA 3.0]

Great Irish Famine Memorial at Penn’s Landing, Philadelphia by Alexmar983 [Licence: (CC BY-SA 3.0]

Links:

The History Place, http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/introduction.htm, accessed 30/10/15

Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/event/irish-Potato-Famine, accessed 30/10/15

BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/famine_01.shtml, accessed 30/10/15